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Backmarks from the partnership generally bear both names but in either order. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author.
W H Smith also sold buttons bearing his name solely. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to sales listings for items offered for sale.
A special thanks to Joan Lindsay & Joy Journeay for their expert editing skills!
References:(1) National Button Society Blue Book - Official NBS Classification and Competition Guidelines(2) Hughes, Elizabeth and Marion Lester.
“The shift of the eagle's aspect to right-facing from left-facing is logical from the perspective of heraldic tradition, since the right side (dexter) is the honor side of the shield and the left side (sinester) indicates dishonor or illegitimacy.” (source: the buttons in the picture, those on the left are Civil War-era, those on the right are from a WWII US Navy uniform (my father-in-law’s).
There were two primary types of US Navy buttons worn during the Civil War. They are both “an eagle resting on a horizontal anchor, three cannon balls below, with 13 stars encircling, on a lined field”.
The difference is that the more common one during the Civil War, the NA112, had the upper fluke of the anchor behind the left wing, whereas the NA113 had the upper fluke of the anchor in front of the left wing.
These types were used right up through WWII, although the NA112 type became much less common after the Civil War.(source: , by Alphaeus H.
There were many different variations, including versions of the eagle facing right and others facing left.(source: Prior to the 1830’s, US Navy buttons were of a one-piece design, and were flat or slightly convex. Backmark: "FIRMIN & SONS LD / LONDON " dm between two ringsof dots, made by Firmin, the use of "LD" designation dates manufacture to after 1875, manufactured after the Civil War, (Firmin900).This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader.I am using many references to Albert’s button book, probably the best resource for US military uniform buttons.His book, the first book listed below, is a must for US military button collectors, as well as various other references on buttons and backmarks.
Books in my library on US Military buttons include: The design of US Navy Officer’s buttons prior to WWII, in use from 1852 until 1941, was an eagle facing left standing on a horizontal anchor.