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Older stuff can be measured by any of a number of other radioisotope decay ratios, and lots of other kinds of tests as well.
Let's say I have a bunch of, let's say these are all atoms. And let's say we're talking about the type of decay where an atom turns into another atom. Or maybe positron emission turning protons into neutrons. And we've talked about moles and, you know, one gram of carbon-12-- I'm sorry, 12 grams-- 12 grams of carbon-12 has one mole of carbon-12 in it.
That's why the curve isn't a perfectly smooth line; several different effects cause variations in the amount of C-14 present in the atmosphere, and if you don't account for them, your measurements can give you dates that are off by thousands of years.
I believe that the calibration curve itself has been painstakingly generated by comparing C-14 results from the results of different dating methods.
This is typically done with some version of a particle accelerator like a cyclotron so that rare isotopes to give better separation of the lower concentrations of C-14 amidst a strong background signal of C-12.
SAL: In the last video we saw all sorts of different types of isotopes of atoms experiencing radioactive decay and turning into other atoms or releasing different types of particles.
That's about all you really need, because C-14 decays fast enough that it's not really useful past about 50,000 years.